- consistory of Marseilles in 1808. With the influx of Jews from Alsace and Lorraine, the community grew to number 300 in 1830, and 700 in 1840. The majority lived in very modest circumstances, inhabiting two poor quarters in the Rue Lanterne and Rue de la Barre. From 1838 a prosperous industrialist, Samuel Heyman de Ricqulès, was leader of the community. De Ricqulès initially endowed Jewish schools and charitable institutions with the intention of reforming them; after a few years, however, he encountered hostility from more traditional elements and was forced to retire. The number of Jews grew to 1,000 in 1848 and 1,200 in 1854. The community acquired the services of a salaried rabbi in 1850. In 1857 it formed its own consistory, which also included Saint-Étienne (116 Jews), Chalon-sur-Saône (125), Besançon (379), and Montbéliard (202). Among its presidents were solomon reinach and Generals Levy and Worms. solomon munk represented Lyons at the Central Consistory. In 1864 the Grande Synagogue was erected on the Quai Tilsitt. At the beginning of the 20th century, with the arrival of immigrants from the Mediterranean area, a Sephardi community was formed in the suburb of Saint-Fons. On the eve of World War II Lyons had 500–600 Jewish families. (Moshe Catane / David Weinberg (2nd ed.) -Holocaust and Postwar Periods As a result of the Franco-German agreement (June 1940), Lyons became a "free" city. During much of World War II, it served as a refuge for Jewish organizations, particularly the offices of the Central Consistory, as well as philanthropic and Zionist bodies. Information, both official and unofficial, instructions to the Jewish communities in France, protests against anti-Jewish measures, and secret orders of the resistance all emanated from Lyons. Many Jewish leaders were arrested there. Lyons also hosted a center for Jewish studies for refugee intellectuals, to which Léon Algazi notably contributed, and a reception center for Jewish physicians, on the initiative of OSE. During the Occupation the city also provided sanctuary for large numbers of Jews. Probably its most important role was that of a major center of the Jewish resistance. Jewish resistance fighters generally operated in total isolation from other resistance organizations, with only occasional support and cooperation from Catholic and Protestant elements. Lyons was also the home of an active Catholic resistance effort, thanks to the pastoral letter which Cardinal Gerlier had read on September 6, 1942, in which he denounced the persecution of Jews. Led by the notorious klaus barbie , local Nazi officials fought ruthlessly against members of the resistance and against Jews. The arrests, torture, and deportations reached a peak in August 1944, when prisoners from the "Jewish quarters" in the Monluc Fort prison were taken to Bron airfield to de-mine the area after the bombardment. After the war the remains of 109 individuals were uncovered. After the war many Jewish refugees settled permanently in Lyons. Nevertheless, the community of approximately 7,000 was hardly any larger than in 1939. With the city's economic expansion and the influx of immigrants from North Africa in the 1950s and 1960s, the Jewish population had increased to over 20,000 in 1969. In 1961 the community inaugurated one of the first and foremost community centers in France. The various communal religious bodies – consistorial, Sephardi, and Orthodox – generally worked in close cooperation, and a new synagogue was inaugurated in 1966 in La Duchère, a new quarter of the city. A regional consistory was also founded in 1961. In 1987, there were said to be about 25,000 Jews living in Lyons. The community institutions include an ORT vocational school, two religious schools, and numerous kosher butchers and restaurants. There are more than 20 other communities in the vicinity. Two are especially notable. Villeurbanne, with a Jewish population of 1,900, has a synagogue that was built in 1965 with money from the Claims Conference and with the help of Aktion Suehnezeichen ("Repentance Society"), a group of young Germans seeking expiation for Nazi crimes. The community of Saint Fons-Vénissieux was originally founded in the interwar period by Jews from North Africa. Numbering about 1,000, a majority of whom are industrial workers, it maintains a synagogue and community center. (Georges Levitte / David Weinberg (2nd ed.) -BIBLIOGRAPHY: A. Lévy, Notice sur les lsraélites de Lyon (1894); idem, in: Univers Israélite, 48–49 (1892/93–1893/94); T. Reinach, in: REJ, 50 (1905), lxxxi–cxi; S. Reinach, ibid., 51 (1906), 245–50; B. Blumenkranz, Juifs et Chrétiens dans le monde occidental (1960), index; A. Coville, Recherches sur l'histoire de Lyon (1928), 538ff.; J. Kling, in: Revue de Psychologie des peuples, 13 (1958), 199ff.; E. Dreyfus and L. Marx, Autour des Juifs de Lyon (1958); F. Delpech, in: Cahiers d'Histoire (1959), 51ff.; H. Amoretti, Lyon… 1940–1944 (1964), 142ff.; Z. Szajkowski, Analytical Franco-Jewish Gazetteer (1966), 252f.
Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.
Look at other dictionaries:
Lyons — Lyons † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Lyons The Archdiocese of Lyons (Lugdunensis) comprises the Department of the Rhône (except the Canton of Villeurbanne, which belongs to the Diocese of Grenoble) and of the Loire. The Concordat of 1801… … Catholic encyclopedia
Lyons — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Donal Lyons (* ?), irischer Politiker Edmund Lyons, 1. Baron Lyons (1790–1858), britischer Admiral und Diplomat Edward Lyons (1926–2010), britischer Politiker Elena Lyons (* 1973), US amerikanische… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Lyons — Lyons, NE U.S. city in Nebraska Population (2000): 963 Housing Units (2000): 474 Land area (2000): 0.699266 sq. miles (1.811091 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.699266 sq. miles (1.811091 sq.… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Lyons — is used to refer to many different people, places and other entities.Places In Europe * Lyons la Forêt, France * Lyons, Tyne and Wear, England * Lyons Hill, Ireland In the United States * Lyons, Colorado * Lyons, Georgia * Lyons, Illinois * Lyons … Wikipedia
Lyons, CO — U.S. town in Colorado Population (2000): 1585 Housing Units (2000): 686 Land area (2000): 1.244579 sq. miles (3.223445 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.244579 sq. miles (3.223445 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Lyons, GA — U.S. city in Georgia Population (2000): 4169 Housing Units (2000): 1787 Land area (2000): 7.483149 sq. miles (19.381266 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.043454 sq. miles (0.112545 sq. km) Total area (2000): 7.526603 sq. miles (19.493811 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Lyons, IL — U.S. village in Illinois Population (2000): 10255 Housing Units (2000): 4219 Land area (2000): 2.206887 sq. miles (5.715810 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.047631 sq. miles (0.123365 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.254518 sq. miles (5.839175 sq. km)… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Lyons, IN — U.S. town in Indiana Population (2000): 748 Housing Units (2000): 322 Land area (2000): 0.865207 sq. miles (2.240875 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.865207 sq. miles (2.240875 sq. km) FIPS code … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Lyons, KS — U.S. city in Kansas Population (2000): 3732 Housing Units (2000): 1738 Land area (2000): 2.154167 sq. miles (5.579267 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 2.154167 sq. miles (5.579267 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places
Lyons, MI — U.S. village in Michigan Population (2000): 726 Housing Units (2000): 311 Land area (2000): 1.216603 sq. miles (3.150986 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.110439 sq. miles (0.286036 sq. km) Total area (2000): 1.327042 sq. miles (3.437022 sq. km) FIPS… … StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places